Thursday, May 7, 2009

Avid Editing by Sam Kauffman

Sam Kauffman. Avid Editing. (Fourth Edition). Boston: Focal Press, 2009.

A film editor should work with the script alongside of what needs to be edited.

Files needed for editing can be moved from a DVD onto a computer.

There are different opinions as to what editors do. Some see them there to remove footage that makes a film drag, some see editors as following the dictates of the director and editing together all the best takes, and others see it as a creative mission in its own right.

Editors often need to consider which takes are filmed in the best photogenic manner as well as to what the proper pacing of a film should be.

Computer-based non-linear editing systems, including the Avid, began being used in the 1990s and are the most frequently used system today. Prior to this, analog editing machines were used the most.

Editing can be done using a computer keyboard. White it is easy to use, it has numerous abilities. Avid has 1,500 pages of instructions. Avid allows editing of sound, music, and titles onto visual film.

Avid, unlike Final Cut, can operate on PCs, MACs, laptops, and workstations.

To load Avid, enter the disc, double click the DBD, open README.pdg, and make certain the computer can handle the downloading. Then open Other Installers, hit to load EDL Manager. 4 GB of system memory must be on the computer as well as Fire Wire or iLink, and captive boards with video and audio format 160 GB of drive will be required, Storing on an external Fire Wire is recommended.

A dongle must be inserted into a USB port to use Avid. A good speaker system is essential.

A client monitor, used to view digital video footage, allows the view to be altered. This cost from $1,500, which can get a good monitor, to $25,000.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or at least a surge protector should be placed into a computer for back-up should electricity fail.

External interfaces, such as Nitris CX and Mojo DX allow a captive to use a camera’s signals. This is good if editing needs to be done with a camera must be elsewhere.

Videotape is time coded, with about 30 frames per second.

Editing is done from a shot, or master clip.

Different folders, which can be film, audio, etc. are put into bins. Scenes cut together form a sequence. Cuts are chosen from an assembly of clips. A rough cut sequence plans the proper scenes into their correct length. Changes and cuts are made until a final cut is completed. Titles and effects are then added to create a picture lock. Music and sound effects are then added.

The Project Window indicates what bins are available. The Record Monitor shows what editing has been created.

The L key plays a clip forward, K pauses, and J reverses. The space bar stops a clip. I sets to the beginning of a clip. O sets to where a clip ends.

The Splice button inserts material. The Overwrite button erases material with new material.

Editing is an aesthetic, to which there are no rules. The author recommends an editor be familiar with a script, know the motivations of a character, and determine which shots best convey those motivations. Things to consider are artistic composition, including dramatic performance, lighting, camera work, blocking, sound, etc.

The Hold the Command (Control) Key produces the shot’s first frame. The Hold the Option and Command (Control-Alt) key produces the shot’s last frame. The left and right arrow keys move over one frame towards (left arrow key) or one frame backward (right arrow key).

The Timeline has a Fast menu of More Detail and Less Detail.

The Scroll bar has a slider taking one to different Timeline sections.

To view the track in a larger size, use the command Control L (Windows) or Command L (Mac). To reduce the size, use Control K (Windows) or Command K (Mac).

Track monitor icons indicating tracks are to the right of the track selectors.

The Mark Clip command, located on the T keyboard key, can make the In and OUT desired in a clip.

The author suggests making a duplicate of all work. This way earlier versions of work can be referenced and reconsidered.

The keyboard letter Z is the Lift button. This removes the clip. Command (Mac)/Control (Windows) Z reverses the Extract. Extracting the audio removes all video within that clip. Undo corrects any problems caused from Extract mistakes or decision changes. Extract can be used to shorten clips as needed.

An edit requires three marks, an IN and OUT on the desired sequence and an IN as to where on the timeline the sequence should be placed.

The author recommends noting that every splice or overwrite requires three marks: IN and OUT the sources you wish edited and IN on where it is to be placed.

A section can be placed inside a clipboard by marking the IN and OUT on the timeline of the desired section and then press Lift, Extract, or the Clipboard icons.

Command Z (Mac) / Control Z (Windows undoes the previous command. It can be hit multiple times to undo multiple commands.

Trim Mode is used to lengthen or slow a sequence. Click near the cut point. Click the Trim Mode key, which is found under the Splice/Overwrite command in the Timeline toolbox using the U key. Both the ending and the beginning of both scenes near the cut point appear.

Trim Mode is more quickly reached by clicking the gray above the tracks to the left of the desired transition. Desired tracks can be dragged down.

Exiting Trim Mode requires pressing Trim Mode, press either the left or right arrow key, and check onto the time code track.

The Trim frame keys edit one frame. The double arrow keys trim by ten frames.

A split edit, called an L-cut, can be made in Dual Roller Trim Mode. Separate trims can be made on video and sound.

Command-drag (Mac) / Control-drag (Windows) changes a split edit back into a straight cut.

The Review Transition key allows watching and trimming while watching.

To trim the other side, clicking the Time Mode Display’s other side moves the rollers to the other side.

Clicking onto the rollers allows one to drag a roller into other directions.

If the audio and visual are out of sync, the problems can be resolved in Single Roller Trim Mode and either hit the arrow keys or drag the roller.

A bin’s Brief View, providing the name given to the clip, timecode, start, and the length of the clip. Test View provides a chosen clip.

Columns can be arranged as desired. Sort arranges columns either numerically or alphabetically.

Another sequence can be chosen from the Clip memo.

Unusable material can be deleted by checking both “delete master card” and “delete associated media files”. It will still exist on original source material but not on Avid.

If storage space is needed, click only “delete associated media files” to remove unwanted material from the media drive. If the material is later needed, it can be recaptured.

There are numerous kinds of settings.

Editing needs to consider continuity, how the eye traces shots, screen directions, and pacing. It has to flow the story properly.

Picture and sound can be imported from some cameras to the computer. The Panasonic HVX200 camera is used by many, especially TV stations, independent filmmakers, and film schools. What is filmed goes onto a P2 memory card. The card can be transferred to Avid. A compatible format and frame setting must be used. The author recommends using a 720p/30PN camera setting and a 720p129.97 Avid project setting.

The author notes a 1080:130 camera setting creates video-looking larger films that are good for TV documentaries and sports shows.

Te author recommends moving media form a P2 card into the drive and editing from there. P2 sottware is needed.

The camera’s media switch has to be set to P2 and the P2 card has to still be in the camera to import media from it. USB 2.0 (Windows) or FireWire (Mac) connects to Avid. Use OTHER FUNCTIONSS>PC MODE, select USB Device (Windows)/1393 (Mac), press the mode button, hold it until a screen USB/1394 device Connect blue screen emerges, then (Windows) In my Computer to Removable Disc or (Mac) the P2 card comes up as “No Name”. Use Media Composure, place and name a new project in New Project, use a new active bin, find Removable Disc (Windows) or No Name (MAC), and click OK. This bring the P2 card as master clips. Backup the media before editing it.

If the P2 driver has not yet been loaded into a computer, put the PC card into the PCMICA slot.

Material can be backed-up onto a portable FireStore recorder.

The Sony XDCAM EX camera films in high quality HDV and has a 5x5 memory card. This camera can connect straight to a computer, using a USB 2.0 cable and using Sony Clip Browser Software. Many sounds are added after the visuals have been selected. Sound files can be entered in a picture lock from MP3 files, CDs, or iTunes.

To place new sounds into a clip, select either the New Audio Track from the Clip Menu or use (Windows) Control U or (Mac) Commend (u).

The sound attached to a video usually is placed into A1 of the U1 track. Stereo sync sound is in A2. Any sounds put onto these tracks also erase the sounds there were on them. Many additional sounds that are not to erase what is on A1 and A2 are placed into A3 and A4.

If one wishes to renew just one of several sound tracks on use Control (Windows) / Control (Mac) onto the desired track’s monitor. Clicking the Track Monitor returns to all tracks.

The K key pauses. The L key moves forward in slow motion. The J key moves backward.

Using Cap Locks or holding the shift key, the sound can be clicked or dragged forward or backward. To remove an unwanted sound, use Option (Alt) key and click the A3 speaker icon. Then Option (Alt), click on A4 to scrub. To delete, deselect desired tracks and delete only form the track where sound is to be removed. Use the Delete key and confirm with OK. TO undo a delete, sue Command/Control Z.

Output settings are used to change volume levels. On Project, click Settings, double click Audio Projects, click Output table, and slid the Output Gain slider to determine the desired volume. Once decided, the dialog box should be closed.

The volume of clips can be changed with the Audio Mixes Toy. To change the volume, select Source Manager and use the slider.

Hold the Alt (Windows)/ Option (Mac) key and click the slider button to go to OdB.

Panning determines how much sound emerges from each speaker. Use Alt-click (Windows) / Option-click (Mac) onto the Pan button to go to the middle, MiD.

To pan or change a volume level, choose where on a clip to IN and OUT. Click the desired track button or gang button to choose several desired tracks. Adjust the volume slider or the pan slider as desired. On the Audio Mixer Tool Fast menu, either drag Set Level On Track-In/Out or use Set Pan On Track-In/Out.

To change on an entire track, delete the IN and OUT marks. Use the Set Level or Set Pan Track-Global.

Using Audio Data (Media Computer) on Xpress and its tools, the decibel level can be set.

Auto Gain Main changes levels within a clip. This is known as volume rubber banding. This is used most frequently to change music levels. Keyframes may be set manually or by using sliders.

To use manually, go to the Timeline Fast Menu. Choose Audio Data, then choose Audio Gain, then choose the desired tracks. Use Timeline’s blue position Indicator to determine where audio will be changed. Use the “ key on Media Computer’s keyboard or the N key on X press. Use the blue position indicator as desired on Timeline. Another keyframe emerges by hitting the key frame key. The mouse can be sued to change the second key frame’s hand pointer. Dragging the key frame into Timeline produces a volume ramp. Play and listen.

A keyframe is moved by using the Alt (Windows) / Option (Mac) key. Click the keyframe to the desired place and drag it to the new sport.

A keyframe can be deleted by mouse pointing to the keyframe to be deleted and then pressing the Delete key.

Keyframes can be placed automatically by indicating the beginning of a desired track on Timeline, select Auto Mode from the Audio Mixed Tool, press record, change the track slide with the mouse until stopping by hitting the Record button. The “s” box is for solo and the “m” box is to mute a track.

Waveframes visually indicate the audio amplitude or signal strength.

Using the Dual-Roller Time Mode, bits desired to be cut can be removed.

Equalization frequencies can be changed. Sliders are used to either emphasize / boost or de-emphasize / cut certain frequencies. The horizontal sliders manipulate the parametric curve. The Audio Loop button creates a continuous loop is desired to work within that loop. The IN button on the EQ turns off the effect.

EQ effects can be selected from the EQ Fast Menu. The effect can be altered using the template’s slider to save an effect set, click and drag it and the EQ icon to the desired location. Name the bin. Using the A4 (OVU on analog) normal talking usually falls within -25 dB to -12 dB. The loudest sound is usually at -4 dB.

Using the -20 dB reference level, normal sounds are at -30dB to -18 dB, loud sounds no more than -4 dB, and quieter sounds are at -40 dB to -30 dB.

Clicking the Extract/Splice button creates Segment Mode. Shots can be dragged and their order rearranged.

Transitions can be lassoed in Trim Mode. Segments are lassoed in Segment Mode.

Trimming can occur in two directions with a single roller.

The watch point is where the Review Transition button is clicked while in Trim Mode.

Power editing uses Slip and Slide on Trim Mode. Slip changes the IN and OUT by the same amounts simultaneously. This is done by using Choose Select Slip Time in Dual Roller Trim Mode.

Slide moves a clip along a Timeline. This is done using the Shift + Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac) key, lassoing the desired clip, enter Dual Roller Tim Mode, right click the desired clip segment, and choose Select Slide Trim. To exist, either click the TC1 track or press Trim Mode/

Trimming on the fly, or J-K-L trimming, trims on just one side of a transition. Lasso the desired transition, enter Single Roller Trim Mode on the desired transition side, hold the K key while pressing J or L to move forward or backward along a clip, and release the K key at the end of the trim. This type trimming can also be done on Dual Roller Time Mode.

Replace on the Fast Menu replaces one sequence with another.

Single Mark Editing requires making one mark and using the position indicator to make the other two marks. This can be used for Splice, Overwrite, or Replace. This is done on Settings, double clicking Compact, clicking the Edit tab, choosing Single Mark Editing, and clicking OK.

Backup work on a USB Flash drive, also known as a travel drive.

Avid saves sequences and bins.

Titles are created by selecting Title Tool from the Clip menu and then choosing New Title. Shift T opens the Title Tool.

Clicking the V toggle turns the background to black. Placing the cursor into the Bg box and then cursor through the colors creates a choice of background colors.

To write titles, activate the T to open the Test Tool. Click where the title is to begin. Type the desired text. Generally 48 Bold is the default. The font can be changed using the font button. A different font point size can be selected. Bold can be changed to normal. Deep shadow or depth shadow can be added to titles by using the Shadow Toll on the Selection Tool.

Titles must be saved in a bin and saved with Save Title. Otherwise, they will be lost.

Many titles last for about three seconds. By marking an IN for 60 frames and then an OUT, the title can fade in and out.

Title lengths can be trimmed or extended on Dual Roller Trim Mode.

The fade effect is created by using the Fade Effect button in the Fast menu with a Title Tool. Be certain the title is in the correct Timeline position.

Title colors can be changed. From Select Tool clock the Fill Window. Using Color Picker drag to the desired color and either click the video frame or click the eye dropper. It is possible to blend so colors in title change.

Title Tool has a Save As so the same style sheet will apply to later titles.

Select Soften Shadow changes a title’s shadow from a range of 4 to 40.

The Shadow Depth Selection box colors the shadow. Placing a color, such as light red or light yellow, onto a title without a shadow creates a glow.

The Title Tool has tools to create lines, circles, boxes, and arrows.

The Transparency tool allows setting the Hi, or how opaque or transparent the title is over the visual.

The Video Placement Tool moves the entire frame. It is a mistake to think it moves just objects.

Correcting a mistake on a title can be made using Fixing Titles on the Effect Folder.

Tool Alignment in the Title Tool provides numerous alignments.

The Line Tool allows creating lines and arrows.

To create rolling titles, check the V toggle in the Title Tool, choose New Title from the Clip Menu. Then click Roll button, then click Text Tool, change any font and point sizes if so desired, click Center Text, then type text. At the end of a line, use the return key. When finished, choose close from the File menu, save the target disk and bin, and click OK. The title should not be saved with Fast Save. Select the IN and OUT where these titles go on the Timeline.

Multiple titles can be used with Render In/Out.

The speed of the rolling titles can be changed in Dual Roller Time Mode by dragging the roller left to increase the speed and right to slow it down. Use IN and Out marks to the Source Monitor.

Crawling titles are created using Crawl on the Selector Tool.

Media Composer offers several Marque title effects.

The author recommends to avoid using effects when they detract from strong action scenes.

Transition effects occur at the cut point.

Segment effects occur through an entire clip or segment.

Numerous effects are available on the Effect Palette on the Time Table. To delete an effect, put the position indicator over the effect icon and hit Remove Effect.

The parameters of effects can be altered using the Effect Mode button.

A create keyframe can be moved with the Alt key (Windows) / Options key (Mac) and dragging to the desired location. The Delete key deletes a key frame.

Sound effects should be placed in the Effect Editor into a renamed bit, thus creating a template.

The Dissolve key creates dissolves and is found on both the Timeline toolbar and the Fast Menu.

To create a freeze frame, select the show to be frozen, select the Match Frame command on the Source Monitor, hold the Freeze Frame Scroll, choose a length in the Clip menu, mark and IN and OUT in the Source Monitor, mark and IN and OUT on the Timeline, and put in the frame.

Use Using Interpolated Field when freeze framing something containing bits of motion.

The Motion Effect command on the Source Monitor toolbar allows for developing slow motion, fast motion, reverse motion, and a strobe effect. The default speed for special effects is 15 frames per second. It is possible to select other speeds.

The author recommends using Both Fields when creating two field motion effects. Using Interpolated Field is good if there is a lot of motion in the shot. Duplicated Field creates a lower quality visual and is recommended only when that is the intended look. UTR-Style sharpens images and may work well when there is a lot of motion.

For creating single effects, use the blue position indicator to activate and then click Timeline’s effect icon. Render can also be accessed on the Clip menu. Choose media drive from the dialog box and then hit OK.

For creating Multiple Effect, select an IN for the first effect’s IN and the last effect’s OUT, use Render In/Out from the clip menu, designate a target disk, and then hit OK.

The author notes it may take up to five minutes for effects to be rendered. He recommends saving time by creating several possible desired effects and then rendering them all simultaneously.

A title cab be changed, including making corrections, by selecting the Effect Mode button on the Timeline indicator. Then select Effect Editor and then select Title Tool. The changes made are automatic.

Paint is useful for painting over something on a film. Among times this is used is when disguising the face of a person or character requiring anonymity. Paint is accepted from the drawing tool from Effect Editor.

Clone can be used to erase something and replace it with another image.

Scratch Removal takes information from a previous frame and places it in a selected frame. This is mostly used to remove a scratch, white dust, or video dropout. From Record Monitor, choose Scratch Removal, then Effect Editor, then cursor and draw where something is sought to be removed.

To get two images appear, use Picture in Picture. This is found on the Effect
Effect. Use Border and drag the Width slider to determine the desired picture. Colors can be changed with the Color Wheel or by using sliders. Be certain the desired beginning and end of the desired changes are made. Otherwise, selecting a new keyframe will remove the previous keyframe. Picture in Picture can be used to change the box size and to reposition pictures.

Keyframes can be superimposed on top of each other. Parameter settings can be copied and pasted.

The Position parameter allows for moving a frame along an X and Y axis. Scaling allows for adjusting the box size.

Placing pictures on top of each other, using the Remote to Advanced keyframe button in Effect Editor, can try for a 3D effect by using Promote to 3D Warp, which will produce Picture to Picture to the 3D Warp in Media Composer and 3DPIP in Xpress Pro. Keyframes must be placed prior to this. Effects can be combined for desired effects.

The Color Correction Tool in Toolset allows changing colors. A Dual Split screen allows comparing the color change with the original.

Using the Waveform Monitor allows seeing a clip’s brightness, also known as luminance. The clip’s color, also known as the chrominance, can be analyzed on Vectorscope. HSL mode allows for correcting the hue, saturation, and luminance. Using Hue offset on the Color Correction Tool, one can find a better visual. Controls is used to change the intensity or saturation of colors. Curves can be used by the author warns it is difficult to use.

There is an Automatic Color Correction Tool that can decide the best color and brightness automatically. The author states it is correct about three fourths of the time.

The Auto Contrast button makes its own adjustments to contrast. The author states it works very well, about 98% of the time. He recommends using Auto Contrast before using Auto Balance as Auto Balance doesn’t have such a high degree of accuracy.

Changes to contrast can be done with using sliders on Grain or Setup. Fine tuning can be achieved using left or right arrows.

Color correction settings can be saved for use on other clips. Click and drag the settings to a bin. To use in another clip, drag from that bin to the clip on Timeline. A quicker method is to place the setting into the color bucket’s template settings. Alt click (Windows) / Option click (Mac) onto C1, C2, etc. Clicking onto the desired Cx will apply that setting to another clip when working in that clip.

The author suggests that using the Controls tab is done mostly for controlling color saturation.

Mach Color on Curves can take an eyedropper from the Reference window shot, clock and drag to the correct place onto the color sought to be improved, and then hit Match Color button.

When something is out of sync, the author suggestions determining why it is out of sync. Common sync problems are single roller trimming on a track that was supposed to be, but isn’t, on another track; material spliced to one track but not another; and using material from an external source where it is placed on one track but not another.

If the audio and visual fall out of sync, go to sync break indicators on Timeline. This indicator appears only on sound and visual captured together. Added material that is out of sync will have to be deterred and corrected separately.

The author recommends putting locators of tracks every five minutes. This minimizes a later search for something that has fallen out of sync.

Sync locks work in both Trim mode and in Lift and Extract.

Note that putting things in sync can cause things to be cut off, which could be wanted dialogue or music. Dragging the rollers can extend the shot.

To import a file, create an Imported Files bin, select Import on the File menu, then use Select to Files to Import. Choose whether this is a graphic, audio, etc. file. If the Import box can’t determine the type of file it is, select All Files (Windows) / Any Documents (Mac). Find the desired file on the Directory menu and then check Import files to import the file.

Note that Avid works as a digital TV set does, not as a computer does. Imported files may need to be altered to accommodate this. Decide whether to maintain the imported file and to correct to Avid 60/1709.

Interlaced images that are imported should have a field order set for them. An NTSC project should use Even (Lower Field First). A PAL 601 should use Off (Upper Field First). HD files should use Odd (Upper Field First). PAL DV should use Even.

The default for importing a single frame is 10 seconds.

An image with an opaque layer and a transparent layer can be set up using the alpha channel. Graphic programs can be created using Photoshop.

Importing a Quick Time movie is done selecting 607-709 non-sequel; RGB.Non-Interlaced; Ignore Alpha, then Import dialog box in Select files to choose the drive and resolution, and then Open.

When exporting, duplicate what is being exported into a new bin. This is not necessary if only a frame is being used. The video tract should be placed on the highest level if more than one V1 is being exported. Place the IN and OUT on the Timeline for what is being exported.

To export a frame or still, put an IN on the desired frame, choose Export As… from Export in the File menu, name the file, determine where it is being exported, and Save. Export Settings can be used to change the WIDTH x HEIGHT on Choose to Fit. Use RGB for a graphic. Even (Lower Field First) for SD, Odd (Upper Field First) for HD, and then Save.

The author notes Quick Time is the most common video export choice.

Exporting a High Resolution movie, use save as Source on Export Settings to export the same resolution as it was captured.

Select Use Avid DV Codec if exporting something captured in DV25 before being exported to Avid FV Codec.

Note when exporting to You Tube that You Tube has 100 MB limit. Export to You Tube as a Quick Time reference movie, imported into Sorenson Squeeze on Media Composer. An alternative is to have Avid compress the video. The author recommends using the Sorenson Squeeze.

To move Quick Time reference movie into Sorenson Squeeze to create a MGEP file, go to the Input screen, choose Import File, then Open, select 16:9 aspect ratio, go to Audience Presets, choose Wed>Streaming>MPEG>Mb (select a desired Mb) according to size filed, hit the Apply button, choose Publish Preset, hit the Apply button and then the SQUEEZE button.

An MPEG file can be created with an IN and OUT on the Timeline for the selected clip using Export on the File menu, select Export As…, the Fast-Export Quick Time NTSC/PAC from Export Settings, then Options on Export, deselect the Use Marks and Use Enabled track in order to use the whole clip, Width x Height should be 480 x 360, choose RGB, choose Single Field, choose 4:3 (or 16:9) squeeze pixel, then choose Format Options, then Movie Settings, then Compression type menu on Settings. The author recommends MGPEG-4 Video. Then select a file size and quality on the Compression Quality slider.

Use Best quality for a clip under five minutes. This quality will make the file too large for a clip over five minutes. Select Medium for files that long.

To export a Quick Time Reference Movie, choose Export from the File menu, go to Export As…, select Quick Time Reference then Export Setting, and Save.

Pro Tools HD is an excellent but expensive audio mixer and sound manipulator. Pro Tools LE with a DV Toolkit W is good and less expensive.

To export rendered track to Pro Tools, convert audio as desired (usually 118 KHz), open the File menu, use Send To…, select Quick Time-Embed Audio, choose the external designation, and then hit OK. The .omf file is placed into the Avid Media Files for later or, if using a Fire Wire drive, the Fire Wire’s OMFl Media Files. Choose New Session, and open the .omf file into Tools.

Standard definition material can be made to look nicer by putting it into high definition. Of course, filming in high definition produces the best quality.

High definition uses a 16:9 aspect ratio, interlaced screens, 720 x 480 pixels, 29.97 frames per second, and 3456,000 pixels per frame.

720p uses progressive scanning, 1280 x 720 pixels, 29,97 frames per second, and 921,600 pixels per frame.

1080a uses interlaced screening, 1920 x 1080 pixels, 59.94 frames per cent, and 2,073,600 pixels per frame.

1080p uses progressive scanning, 1920 x 1080 pixels, 59.94 frames per second, and 2,073,600 pixels per frame.

The Sony and Canon HDV 15-fra,e GOP (group of pictures) cameras better capture motion than the 6 frame GOP JVC camera.

720p HD records at 59.94 frames per second (fps) yet Avid allows for viewing at 23.976 fps.

Note that motion picture films operate at 23.976 fps, even though it is often described as being 24 fps.

Almost all prime time TV shows use Avid.

HD tape uses either MojoDX, Adrenaline HD, or NitroDx hardware. The deck has to be on, the Local-Remote switch on Remove, the computer on, use Avid Media Composer software, choose New Project on Select a Project and give it a name, choose HD format on Format, choose a Raser Type, name a bin and see it is open, double click Media Creation on Setting in the Project window, choose Select the Captive, select the correct DNxHD codec, choose Apply to All, select Capture from Toolset, see conrrect track buttons are chosen, choose Video then choose the correct Video and Audio, select the proper DNxHD codex in Resolution, choose to store on an external drive, select the correct deck in Decks, insert the HD tape, name it, select it, then hit OK.

Using Video Quality improves the playback performance. Green mode is what is usually needed to tape it.

SD material can be placed into a HD project and its Timeline by selecting 30i in Format and choosing SD resolution in the Capture Tool.

It is possible to down convert high definition to standard definition. Many stations and theaters can’t handle HD. To do this, choose Consolidate/Transcode in Clip, then Transcode in Consolidate/Transcode, then the target drive for placing the new media, select Target Video Resolution, then Transcode.

Transcode can be used to return master clip media back to original form. Using a duplicate SD in a new bin, select the original HD forma in Project in Format, choose the SD sequence from the newly created HD Sequence, choose Relink from Clip, then Relink Method from Select Highest Quality, and then deselect the appropriate boxes.

To transcode a HD sequence to SD, choose Format from Project, choose the proper HD frame rate, open the desired SD Sequence bin, choose Consolidate/Transcode from Clip, choose Transcode, select a target media for holding the new sequence material, select an SD Taregt Video Resolution, go to Create New Sequence and Convert Video, select a Handle length, and hit Transcode.

Avid puts HD into 16:9 aspect ratio. This can be changed to 4:3 Letterbox Version by using the Switch from 16:9 to 4:3 Source Record Monitors, create a V2 (or V3 is something else is on it) track, move the icon on the Monitor track box to V2, select Reformat on the Effect Palette, and drag the 16:9 Letterbox icon to the V2 track.

The Pan and Scan Effect can be produced by selecting booth V1 and V2 tracks, choose Reformat on the Effect Palette, drag the Pan and Scan effect icon to the empty video track, open Effect Editor in Timeline, select the Aspect Ratio, select 16:9 Anamorphic in Source, select 1.33 (4:3) in Target, open Pictures, and then choose the Subdivide Effect.

To cross convert HDV to HD, choose the correct camera format, select standard on Raster Type, open the desired bin with the HDV sequence, choose Consolidate/Transcode on Clip, select Transcode, choose a target drive for holding the new media, and choose the correct Target Video Resolution.

Avid has Script Integration on Media Composer as well as on Xpress. A screen, along with script supervisor notes of camera angles and the amounts the cover allows an editor to see every camera setup, compare then, and determine which takes are preferred.

Script integration can use one monitor or two. To use two monitors, use dual display (do not use monitors), drag the Script window to the second monitor, choose Settings>Bin, and deselect Enable Super Bin. Remember to name clips.

To put a FinalDraft script into Avid, open Final Draft, then Save As from File, choose Format, then Avid Script Based Editing, and then Save.

The Cut command is used to remove any script dialog desired to be deleted.

To link a Clip to a Script, lasso the desired script section using the cursor, choose the desired clip from the Clips bin, and drag the icon from the bin into the script section.

Takes can be added in Text View by choosing Headings in the Bin menu, use Take heading and click it, hit OK, go to the Take column, click it, and drag it to be beside the Name column/

The slate’s appearance can be changed by pressing the step-ten-framers forward key, which is the 2 key. The 1 key moves backwards. The J-K-L keys are not operative here.

To correct take lines, choose either the Start Mark or End Mark, press down the ctl (Windows) / Command (Mac) key and drag the mark where it should be, and lift off the key to place it there.

A slate can be moved by dragging it with a mouse.

Takes and slates can be deleted with the Delete key.

A Clip loads to the Source Monitor by double clicking the take line.

The Tab key permits jumping ahead in the take.

Script marks can be placed using Add Script Marks on the Other tab, then use the Button to Button Reassignment box, drag Add Script Mark to where desired on the Source Monitor.

Script Sync uses voice recognition software to create script marks. Choose the appropriate of nine languages, select choices as required, click Select Dialog, click the desired dialog, indicate the number of indented spaces into the Dialog Indent box, hit OK, return to the dialog box, and hit OK.

Page numbers can be added using Add Page. Scene numbers can be added using Add Scene. Type the correct number of pages or scenes and then hit OK.

There is an Off-Screen button for off-screen dialog.

If an editor wishes to color code takes, usually to indicate which are preferred, lasso the take and choose Set Color on Script.

To output to tape, use the Audio Tools in Tools, click and hold the pH box, choose Select Tone Media, select the tone length that matches SMPTG bars and the dB, and hit OK.

To crash record to tape, choose the desired tracks, mark the sequence’s IN and OUT, select the Render In to Out from Clip, remove the IN and OUT tracks, use the Video Quality button on Timeline, note that green creates the best quality, insert the tape, position indicator the sequence’s start, place the Remote / Local at Local, pace the camera’s switch to VTR, press Record, play sequence, then Stop.

Digital Cut Tool can be used to crash record. Connect Avid to the camera or the desk (which is turned on), launch the software, the desk should be on Remote, choose Select on the Timeline, choose Digital Cut, choose the Entire Sequence, Stop on Dropped Frames and Add Black at Tail boxes, type the desired amount of time, select Ignore Time and Crash Record, click Record, inset the tape when so prompted, and choose Mounted.

The Avid edit controller can be used to make alterations to the tape. Pre-striped tape, which costs more, can be used.

The Sequence Timecode can be changed using Get Clip Information in File and typing a new time for the Starting TC then hitting OK.

To open the Digital Cut Too, switch the deck to Remote, use Avid softward, connect appropriately (1394 for FireWire or DNA11394 for Mojo, Mojo SDI, or Adrenaline), toggle if using Mojo DX or Nitris DX, choose green to Video Quality, connect appropriately (Tools>Video Output then either SD or HD if using Avid hardwarde; or Output Component Composite, or S-Video or SD while Component YPbPr or HD Component RGD use HD, choose Digital Cut Tool Clip, choose the appropriate choice from Output Mode (choose RT DV25 or DV25 for FireWire, RT DNA or DNxHD if using Avid hardware, choose Entire Sequence box, then Stop on Dropped Frames, choose Add Black at Tail, type the appropriate number for length, choose Select Sequence Time, then Record, insert tape, use Mounted and Stop when needed.

Select Export to Device>HDV to store HDV sequence on HDV tape.

The recapturing of low resolution picture into high resolution picture is also known as uprez.

Precomputes that are not needed can be deleted using Media Tool from Tools, choosing All Drives and Current Project in Media Tools Display, choosing only Select Precompute Clips, using the sequence bin, determining that sequences to be kept are highlighted or shift-clicked to highlight them if not, selecting Select Media Relatives from Bin Fast, selecting Reverse Selection from the Fast menu, and hitting Delete and then OK.

To prepare to recapture a sequence, make a new bin, use command D or ctrl-D to duplicate the final sequence in its current bin and move a duplicate to the new bin, name the duplicate bin, delete audio tracks using the Delete key from Record Monitor on Online Sequence, and close all bins except the one that was just created.

The sequence can be recaptured.

Decomposing a sequence organizes clips as desired, select the desired sequence in Online, select Decompose from Clip, deselect Offline, choose a Handle Length (60 frames is the default). Then hit OK, choose Capture Tool in Tool, choose only V and TC, select the appropriate choice in Video, choose the final resolution, select the target drive, choose the clips from the Online bin, choose Batch Capture from Bin, and capture all desired videos.

If Avid fails to find a clip’s timecode, fast forward until reaching the correct timecode.

To put the audio tracks back, get the sequence from the Source Monitor, mark the IN and OUT in the Source Monitor, make the IN on the Online Sequence in Timeline, use Command U or Ctl-U to produce audio tracks, choose audio tracks while deselecting video tracks on Timeline, and choose Splice.

Titles in lower resolution media may need to be captured separately when media is transferred to the higher resolution. Choose the title sought to be replaced b marking the IN and OUT on Timeline and selecting Create Unrendered Title Media on Clip.

A sequence can be put onto DVD, although it can take several hours. From Avid, click the desired sequence, select Send To…>DVD Quick Time Reference on File, check appropriate settings on Export Setting Summary, hit save, and after Send To: Quick Reference appears, hit OK.

Sorensen Squeeze can be used to create a progressive DVD. Select the format (DVD-NTSC-16x9_(g) on DVD in Audience Presents, select the Advanced button, choose Elementary in Stream then Field Encoding in Progressive, select 29.97 in Frame Rate, and put 6 in the 1 Frames box in GOP Strudture, hit OK, then use Filter Presents, deslect Deinterlace in Auto Crop Deinterlace, use Publish Presets, hit Apply, and then hit SQUEEZE IT.

Sorensen Squeeze can also make a Blue Ray Disc. Select the correct Audience Preset, choose Apply Set the Publish Preset in Fliter Preset and hit SQUEEZE IT.

Film costs more than video. Film has to be laboratory processed. Flying spot processing systems cost over $500,000. Transport film on rollers, which prevents harming the film.

NTSC video operates at 29.94 frames per second (fps). It use to run at 30 fps until adding color slowed it. Film similarly ran at 24 fps until color slowed it to 23.976 fps. Most projectors operate at 24 fps.

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