Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Painting With Light by John Alton

John Alton. Painting with Light. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press, 2013 (originally printed in 1949)

A Bell and Howell Eyemo camera usus similar mm lens (24025) for wide angle shots, 28 mm for narrow range but less distorted shots, 30 mm for long shots with depth, 40 mm for long shots, 50 mm for an angle most resembling what the eye sees and using 75 mm, 80 mm, and 100 mm lens for close ups, portraits, and telephoto shots.

A Filter accentuates clouds, make blue skies darker, allows night time appear as day, and can emphasize landscape parts.

A Filoscope combines blue glass and green glass to indicate which filter appears best.

Diffusers are glass disks of varying grades that can create varying densities and colors.

An exposure meter indicates what is produced in laboratory development.

A lighting unit in known as a Reflector.

A camera can be mounted on a tripod, tied down and supported with a turnbuckle, placed on a dolly, set on a platform, or set on a beam or crane.

Tracking is moving a camera on a crane or dolly that is pulled back while inserted on a ball in a table top towards an entire set’s long shot. This has the problem that the dolly track can be seen in the film. An extra grip can pull back the section of the dolly track that would interfere with the shot, yet this has to be carefully done for safety purposes. Also, care must be taken that the extra grip does not get into this shot. Placing the camera on a receding track can solve this problem.

A Desty Crane uses four one dimensional parallel rails on the ceiling. A camera with a 360 degree horizontal pan and 180 degree vertical tilt is mounted so the camera may film in any direction at whatever speed is needed.

A Set Jack is a wheeled device that allows a wild wall set to be rapidly moved by hand.

A Gobo is a wooden screen which according to its height, cuts a portion of light from reaching a lens. A gobo painted black absorbs lights. A Folding Slider is two ten foot wooden black gobos. A Flag is a mounted gobo. An Overhead Solid Teaser is a large size black flag made of wood or black cloth.

A Target creates similar shadows. A three inch diameter target is a Dot. A target can be 9 inches in diameter. There are also Half Targets that are made of black cloth or black painted wood on metal frames. They may be used singly or doubly layered or triple layered.

A Scrim is a translucent flag used for softening, diffusing, or cutting light. An Open End Scrim lacks a frame and has an open end. A Chin Scrim is U shaped and used singly, doubly, or in triples to reduce light from white clothing (such as white shirt collars next to black clothing).

A Blade is a small flag used for a thin shadow.

A Clip is a tiny flag that is clamped onto a camera of reflector or matte box or something similar.

A Cookie is a flag with designs cut out to resemble certain shadows.

An Era is a flag with a round hole.

A Century Stand is a tripod that holds a flag. Someimes in use with an Adapter Clamp it will hold something else, such as a tree branch.

A Mirror is a reflecting glass used to create light on dark spaces such as tress and bushes.

A Tin illuminates between what a mirror does and what gold or silver reflectors do.

A Butterfly is a scrim on a frame with a net used to soften harsh sunlight.

A Cyclodrum projects light effects or shadows.

Arc Lights are used to simulate sunlight in black and white films.

The most powerful incandescent lamps are the Senior Solarspot and the Senior Spot. The Junior Solarspot and the Junior Spot are used for less illumination. For still less illumination, the Baby Solarspot and the Baby Keg Lite are used. Other kinds of lamps are the Dinky-Inkie (100 or 150 watt bulbs), the Midget (200 watt bulbs), the Single Broad (500 or 760 watt bulbs in a sheet metal reflector),the Cineite (500 or 1,000 watt bulbs in a domed reflector), and the Double Broad (two 1,000 watt bulbs).

The Swinging Keylights cast mobile shadows as it is moved.

A Boomlight is a Baby Key-Lite mounted onto a boom at 45 degrees horizontal. It is dangerous as a falling hazard.

A Streamlight is a combination of different types of lights that are hung and can be angled It is used mostly on small sets although several Streamlights can be used in larger sets.

A Pan lights the background.

A Gimmick is a globe used as a reflector.

A Photoflood increases interior lighting.

A Work Light is 100 or 200 watt lamp on a set.

A Keylight lights people. A Clotheslight lightens dark clothing. The Footlight comes from the camera’s direction. A Crosslight comes from across. A Toplight comes from above. A Cross Backlight or Kicker comes from the rear and is placed either high above or on the floor. A Backlight comes from behind. A Eyelight brightens people’s eyes. A Fill or Filler Light fills in deep shadows.

The Theory of Illumination is to know one light source make round object flat. A second light source, be it backlight, keyfiler, filler, or kicker, corrects that.

It is often advisable to film at an angle so one may see hte most surfaces on film.

A testlight determines the direction form which principal lighting will be best.

An exposure meter indicates overall illumination. Placing lights on both sides of a camera can illuminate everything.

A filler light reduces multiple shadows.

Depth can be presented by lighting the foreground while having a darkened background.

Extreme long shots can add production value if there are lots of things to show within the shot.

Depth is created by placing actors and props at different distances and using lighting and shadowing.

It is advised that partially seen backdrops should be off-white. Translite backings can illuminate from behind. Pans or Scoops from high above or on the floor illuminate background and are usually used with Duarcs or Broads set on the floor.

A Key is the type of movie. Different tpes of movies tend to have their own type of lighting For instance, musical comedies use high brilliant lightings.

Roughing It In refers to lighting background where actors do not appear.

Bluish light does not capture well on film. Inkies and Seniors create impressions of sunlights.

Y-1 Yellow Gelatin put in front of an Arc changes bluish light into reddish-yellow light similar to incandescent lighting. This makes all the lighting of a set a consistent color temperature.

It is advised to light side walls with highly placed back crosslight or with toplight or with forelight placed at heights different from camera heights. The foreground of sidewalks should use darker light than their backgrounds. Use cross backlighting on furniture. Place  Durac on each camera’s side for filler light.

Comedies usually involve actors with actions. All action must be lit well to be seen. The actors’ faces need to be the lightest spots during close-ups.

A stationary shot is quicker to light than a dolly or tracking shot.

A long shot should not have floor light so the entire set can be filmed. Close shots usually require floor lights. If shooting both, hang reflectors on ropes near the upper camera line.

Tragedy often has shadows, blacks, and highlights.

For shooting a scene at dawn, use Pns on the floor with several diffused broads or Duarcs. Interior scenes at dawn use well diffused reflectors set criss-crossed.

Lighting for sunrise is the same as lighting for dawn, yet with more Duarcs used. Interior lighting at sunrise has lighting from above, front-lighting, and removes diffusers from arcs that light through windows.

The lighting for each morning is similar to lighting as sunrise, yet shadows are now against the wall. This is done by raising the keylight’s density and adding more lamps or reducing diffusion to have more front-lights.

Lighting for a sunset is the same as lighting for a sunrise. If the sunrise or sunset has been shown, the lighting must be switch directions.

An evening dining room usually uses lighting above the set.

A shoot from the end of a dining room table at night uses keylights from above (from the right for actors on the left and from the left for actors on the right), a spotlight on the floor, and back or kicker hotter than the keylight. An actor at mid-distance will require more frontlight

Lighting a window shot uses an outside arc. It is advised to also use inkie light from the same direction for curtains and showing the sunlight enter. A crosslighting is sued inside at less intensity than outside.

Lighting a moonlit night is the same as lighting for day except without backing light and front filler.

To light a two actor show against a window, use two backlight arcs on the actors. This is in addition to lighting for one actor.

An inside shot showing lighting from outside by using shading or a tree branch and/us using a gauze. A broad is placed on the soft side. Low light on the key side might be necessary if there are heavy shadows. An inside kicker is used. Backlight is not used. Light the background to show an actor’s head; otherwise the background is kept dark or with shadows.

Interior or exterior shots light according to light sources.

Darkness, because it can’t be seen, creates mystery as to what is in the darkness.

Filming a person lighting a cigarette with not need additional lighting if the person is silhouetted in the foreground. A baby on dimmer will full light the face.

Filming a mysterious place uses some photoflood bulbs placed in desired locations.

When filming neon or electric lights, wetting the pavement creates reflections.

Night shots can appear mysterious by using Wratten number 23 and 56 filters on sumlit exteriors.

Lower the exposure meters settings when filming white buildings. White skies are difficult to film and will likely require photofloods.

A Lightning Machine is used to simulate lightning. Such machines are inkie bulbs that emit quick flashes for short distances. Inkies with projecting globes are used for longer distances, as would a salt water barrel with carbon bundlers with with poles that touch for controlled durations.

A campfire scene uses the campfire for light. Crosslight reflectors light the group of people around the campfire. Little frontlight is used for foreground people. Lighting the lower part of a black pained backdrop create a rising sun appearance.

Lighting a scene with a fireplace should have two low arcs before the fireplace placed on the floor facing the ceiling and two high arcs for the room’s floor. The fireplace should cast shadows when the fireplace is in the scene, so the lighting directions may need to be changed. This may depend on how much of the fireplace’s light is in he scene. A burning rag soaked in oil placed in front of an arc light will produce flames that give off shadows similar to a fireplace.

A scene using a candle flame can create a mood of mystery from the candlelight. An artifical candle with a carved-out side containing an arc can simulate candle flames. If a candlelight is not required for light in a heavily lit set, then real candles are fine.

Actors who are doubles are filmed in very low key and in direct background to hide their faces.

A low light that illuminates the face can  increase shadows that create a criminal appearance.

Prison scenes are not shot brightly. The outside light, symbolizing freedom, should be brighter and use Duarcs. Prison interiors use shadowless Duarcs. Night cell scenes use corridor lights, When the cell is dark moonlight is a strong blue light.

The author disagrees with others that believe an underlit negative does well presenting nighttime. There always has to be some light source from somewhere. Lights come from street lamps, residence windows, automobiles, commercial lights, etc. Do not underlight night exteriors.

Rain pipes are rigged to simulate rain. Rain must be captured with backlighting and frontlighting Shooting rain against a black background works. Shooting rain at night means there should be either diffused concentrated light or light reflected off white screens.

An interior scene with rain requires only a rain splattered window.

In filming summer moonlight scenes, front light in medium shots and close ups allows for showing facial expressions. An arc light simulates moonlight. Inkies simulate lights from stores.

Fog can be simulated using steam, dry ice, atomized Nujol, burned magnesium, smoke, fog filters, or a smoke bomb. Atomized Nujol is used the most. It reflects off actors’ faces quite well. Magnesium is less effective and doesn’t last as long, yet it is less expensive. Fog filters made of glass or white gauzelike material place din front of a lens with backlights simulates fog, yet it takes away depth.

Artificial fog absorbs and flattens light. A higher key is used at greater concentration. A strong frontlight helps in closeup shots. A wide angle lens is used to show more depth. It is advised to have the whole field of vision shown with backlights. Practical lights hsould be turned on.

Mirror scenes should not use cheaply made mirrors that distort. A white plate glass absorbs less light than cheaper green glass.

Shooting a mirror must avoid the camera having the camera, crew, and lights from appearing in the mirror A keylight is placed near a camera. Note that the mirror supplies backlight.

Ice is often painted on. Real ice melts and doesn’t film well. It is often painted blue and filmed with strong illumination. Avoid using too much backlighting that over-reflects from wet surfaces. A single arc can represent moonlight.

With black ice, it looks best to pain a set ivory and have people wear light or shiny metal clothing.

Bleached corn flakes are an inexpensive way to simulate snow. Mica dust adds sparkle to snow on trees. Absorbent cotton with bleached corn flakes poured on top simulates snow. Snow flakes are lit from the front.

Use off shadows when lighting for dream scenes.

Light a railroad station normally. Avoid overlighting black objects. The light of a moving train can be simulated using a revolving cylinder with mirror pieces mounted on it and then showing strong, concentrated light into this cylinder. A strong arc light cnetered into a drum can also simulate the light of a moving train.

Train interiors are lit lighter for night shots than for day shots. Night shots show inside artificial lighting. Interior rain shots use highly placed keylights. A berth may use a side lamp.

A plane interior is lit similar to a train interior. Keylights use the swinging key.

Modern ship interiors are lit like interior sets.

Daytime tent interior scenes have the walls backlit with tree branch shadows. Nighttime tent interior scenes have an interior light source. Total darkness shows moonlighting.

A wire that is needed but shouldn’t be seen requires background shadows to hide it and there should be no light on the wires. A foreground hot lamp may distract attention from the wire.

Background Process or Transparency Photography involves filming combined pictures.

A Plate is a strip of live film. A Stereo is a background key with no motion.

In Process Illumination, filler light from above and little font light is used and keylights cross or a front keylight is used with superflow light gobbed off screen. An actor above floor level may be lit with low filler light. Sunlight or moonlight might light both the foreground and background.

Automobile interiors are usually shot on a process stage. Moving shadows are projected onto people seated in the car.

Train interior shots are usually done on a process stage with front flatlight or a backlight shone through a window for silhouetted faces. Motion is presented by lightly shaking the stage and perhaps moving the camera back and forth. Trees and scenery on a merry go round can appear to be moving background seen from the train.

A projector can shoot different angles, of high places or at high places, and project onto a stationary screen that a camera from film.

A built-in turntable on a process stage set in front of a transparency screen allows for filming at different angles rather than moving the item on the turntable and relighting.

For closeup shots, a beautiful woman’s face should be shot at an angle that creates the most facial symmetry. It is not faces are not symmetrical.

The eye often looks first at the upper part of a face. Placing interest things in the upper part of the face can create interest for the things.

Do not use a lighted lamp, over-exposed curtain, or any hot item in a close-up or it will draw attention away from the face.

The head need not, and often should not, be in the exact center. the eyes should be in the upper part.

Keep the background dark and light what needs to be shown in close-ups.

Close-up and portrait shots should be lit and balanced separately..

Lens difference can make people appear more beautiful. There is a standard manufactured glass diffusion disk. There is also a silk-like gauze that is constructed. The gauze diffusion is advised when lamps, candles, flames, etc. appear and one wishes sparkling eyes.  Diffusion should be shown gradually.

Chiffon, or fine net dress material, can be attached to a drawing board for a diffusion effect.

A light with a translucent material over it diffuses light that fills in wrinkles, shadows, etc. White silk in one, two, or three layers or having gauze in one or two layers, attached to a wooden frame serve to diffuse light. They may be cut in half to cur the light in half.

Arc lamps give off a bluish light. Inkies give off a yellowish light. Gelatin mounted on a frame or ring at the same color will correct whatever color correction is desired.

Barn Doors are metal doors that cut light, cut diagonal shadows.

Funnels, or large metal tubs, and Snoots, which are smaller metal tubes, reduce the field of light when placed in front of reflectors.

Brackets, or Side Arms, are lamp stands attached that support eyelights.

A Dimmer is used to reduce light. A combination of Dimmers is a Dimmer Bank.

Dimming an inkie too far makes it lose its lighting value. Duarcs are used to dim inkie dimmers.

Shutters, which looks blinds, dim arc lamps.

Wind or breeze effects use a Silent Electric Fan.

A lighting scheme often uses the Clock System using a truncated cone on a camera.

To light a close up of a female with dialogue, Crosslight at 10 o’clock Use a Kicker at 9 o’clock and backlight at 12 o’clock to create more beauty to the face.

Use high forehand light for a female actor with a long face Use low forehand light for a female with a round face.

With orthochromatic film, grease paint covered up faces and they were photographed light.

A Testlight is an aluminum tube with a frosted bulb at the end. It gives off a weak light and is used primary for dark effects.

The author recommends creating overall light first and then seeing where to place keylights.

The Eight Light System (fill light, key light, filler light, clotheslight, backlight, kicker light eyelight, and background light) is what is used more often to resemble portrait photography light.

Fill Light lights the field of view from the lens.

The Key Light is placed using a Testlight. It is generally placed to the side of faces being filmed. A diffused Junior creates softer light Sometimes, a diffused Senior on a dimmer is used.

Filler Light corrects for unwanted shadows created by a high keylight. A low baby spotlight or a broad at around 5 o’clock placed under the keylight may be used.

A Clotheslight corrects for overlighting in the keylight. A baby or junior spotlight used as strong crosslights allows highlights and clothing texture to appear It usually is placed on the key side to create one light sources.

Backlight separate the foreground and background and helps with actor’s hair colors It should not be used to distort facial highlights. A stationary brunette wearing white requires shade on each shoulder using a solid or gauze target for shading Arcs give a pleasant steel blue look to brunettes and a pleasant silver look to gray-white hair. Hangers are used i close conditions with babies nailed to the wall If a hanger interferes with the scene, a boomlight can be used. In crowded sets, a dinkie on a dinker plate can be hidden on the set

A Kicker light improves facial lighting Proper backlight may take away the need for a kicker. If the backlight can’t reach an actor’s profile, a kicker on one or both sides can be used. If the face is distorted a solid flag shades what light is not wanted. A kicker at eye height increases eye luminosity. A junior or baby on a dimmer is used as a kicker.

An Eyelight corrects if the keylight fails to reflect the eye for actors with sensitive eyes that don’t pick up light. A heavy diffused or dimmed junior or baby is used. Sometimes a dinkie is used although it will increase eye reflection. An amber-colored geltin on a lamp is used for an actor with under-pigmented blue eyes.

The Background Light shows background. During profile close-ups, there usually is a darker background behind the actor’s head. Exceptions are when something in the background is important, as something scary or unpleasant is in the background. The 65 Arc Lamp is easily moved for background lighting. Duarcs work when an even white light is sought.

A Keylight can correct a problem and create a new problem A second key corrects.

A deep set forehead or sunken eyes are corrected with a gauzed down keylight to the eyebrow.

A shaded front keylight with a solid or double open end reduces shines on bald heads.

A soft frontlight instead of a harsh keylight may be better for an actor with fleshy, apple cheeks.

A Cheeklight is an arclight or inkie with blue gelatin that brightens cheeks of actors who otherwise would appear cheekless.

A high keylight at about 1 o’clock is used for someone with a round face to create a comedic flattened face. Use two kickers, one at 3 o’clock and one at 9 o’clock, with a shaded keylight on the forehead and chin.

Using a mirror glass as a silhouette foreground with the actor looking straight into the camera captures a mirror reflection. Low keylightig is used.

A dark face in white clothing requires shaded keylight for the dress and a separate clotheslight.

For glamour bedroom shots, silk or satin bedding is recommended over linen. The face uses a keylight at 12 o’clock. Backlight the head at 12 o’clock for cheeks. Use a small arc light or a kick at 3 o’clock for the face and pillow.

A moonlight bedroom scene uses arc lamps at 3 o’clock and at 9 o’clock with litter to no filler light, Use an eyelight for open eyes.

A sick person in bed may use a strong eyelight and heavy lens diffusion to make eyes look feverish.

A somber dying person mood uses cross background keylight and no filler light.

A character that has aged uses high keylight from above or at 1 o’clock and little to no filler light to allow wrinkles to be shown. The actors uses little to no make-up.

Masculine faces use front lightin high in kye or, if the key is low, a gauze for the light on the forehead. Using just back crosslighting on a three quarter angle and keylight at 2 o’clock with little to no filler light creates plasticity in the face.

A close-up of a criminal face uses a strong key at 6 o’clock and a kicker at 3 o’clock and an eyelight and usually no filler light if the scene is at night.

Use a high keylight at 12 o’clock to avoid glare from wearing glasses.

In an over-shoulder close-up shot, the foreground person is left dark with a back kicker. The other actor is lit as usual.

A comedy close-up uses full high key and strong filler light.

A dolly and crane close-up are lit from high, reflectors moved further apart or larger reflectors are used, and an inkie and baby on a dolly or crane are always next to the camera for eyelight and filler. A soft broad is used instead of a baby if it creates an unwanted spot between an actor and a wall.

Strong crosslighting creates contrasting deep shadows, wich is best in resolving faces that appear out of focus.

To create a menacing facial close-up, hide dark features andshow a dark mysterious background with a strong baby at keylight strength and light only the eyes.

A Black actor does not require different lighting from a white actor.

An exterior close-up uses sunlight. It could also use booster lights inside a tarp surrounding the area being filmed. A gold reflector on the side where an actor looks can be used. If the sunlight is too strong, a butterfly with one or two layers of translucent material over the actor’s head with sun reflectors is used. Gold reflectors are used for faces and eyes.

In exterior shots, showing depth requires darker foreground than the background.

Shooting from eye height in exterior shots creates a natural effect. Raising the camera reduces the effect.

Avoid having something like a post or a tree cutting a shot in half.

The height of a wall is not detectable unless a person or known object is in front of it.

A person on a mountain or tall location should be filmed in the upper part of a picture Street levels use the power part of the picture.

Sun reflectors and a low light source may distort faces. Gold reflectors are better for exterior scenes.

If the sunlight is too strong even with reflected filler, use a large butterfly over actors’ heads to soften the light.

If reflectors can’t receive direct sunlight, use mirrors or tins to reflect sunlight and use gold reflectors for lighting faces. Silver reflectors are for backlight, crosslight, kickers, and dark backgrounds. Tins and mirrors are for far away dark sports like trees or bushes. Use small reflectors for eyes.

A Booster light helps when sunlight fades.

Sunlight can be reduced by Tarping or placing a canvass over where shooting Softer inkies are used.

Sunlight used for full light. Duarcs are used for filler light if it gets too dark.

A 70 Keylight or senior is used to light small exterior areas.

A 90 small arc is used for exterior clotheslight.

For backllight, use an arc or senior from high. If this is not possible, use kickers.

A kicker beyond the camera sidelight can be used for exterior kicker light. For closer shots, use arc lights, seniors, or juniors.

For exterior eyelight, use a junior.

For exterior background light on trees, bushes, or other background, use arcs. Oepn country background requires no background lighting.

Exterior booster lighting requires a tarped set.

Fillers can change contrast. The Wratten G has a yellow-orange tint that deepens shadows in soft sunlight and brings out clouds. The Aero green-yellow tint brightens things that are green. The orange-filter brightens faces in a snow or a sea. Orange and red filters darken blue and green and lighten yellow and red. Red filters overcorrect which can create interesting landscapes.

Red filters deepen shadows, increases white colors, and darkens blues. They help allow day shots appear as night shots. It can create a moonlight effect It cannot be used to simulate window lights at night.

For night shots, the Wrattten 72 is good, as is using the 23 (pink) and 56 (green) together or the red (24) filter This can also be used for ocean shots to darken the water and sky and whiten the whitecaps of the ocean.

Darken to night density so sun reflection on windows can’t be seen if filming a night shot during daytime.

Nighttime can be filmed during daytime without using night filters by filming with a perfectly steady camera and, at nighttime, rewinding the film and filming the lights. Film southward if the sky is not in the scene Night lights through windows use a photoflood bulb behind the window covered with tracing paper Sun reflectors or booster lights are used to silhouette anything in front of a building.

A lens, especially 25 mm and 35 mm, that stops down too far photographs its ow inside diaphragm, which is known as a Ghost. Filter glass surfaces may create flare lights Use a gelatin filter and sometimes a neutral-density filter, inside the camera to prevent this.

Most diffusion can be used on exterior shots than for interior shots. Romantic shots are often heavily diffused.

Use the exposure meter to determine lighting, as it can vary throughout the day.

Filming in a desert means long shadows can be filmed in early morning or late afternoon. Mirage heat waves can not be remedied. Keep dust out of the camera by using an umbrella and keeping dust out when loading it. Use two exposure meters, as lighting can be difficult.

Mountain shots have the best lighting during sunrise and sunset.

Under-cranking a camera exaggerates the movement of animals, trees, and plants.

Westerns often increase tempo by cutting camera speed from 24 to 18 rames per second to an exaggerated comedic 12 frames per second.

When filming at 12 frames per second close the shutter to 90 degrees. Cross-screen action is usually 22 famers per second. Riders approaching a camera are usually 20 frames per second. Wide angle lens makes riders appear to approach more quickly. Cattle stampedes are usually shots at 20 frames per second.

Stunt chases in open country must avoid having trees hiding the action. Shots at top of a hill are best shot in early morning and later afternoon. Scenes in a gorge or bottom are shot after early morning, Some water, i.e. a river or lake, in the foreground at sunrise and sunset add reflected beauty Death is symbolized by a dead tree in the foreground While not recommended if one has to shoot in flat light, have a black foreground. Under-crank storm clouds arriving. Dust can be stirred up with a camouflaged brush behind a coach or horse If details are required to be seen, avoid dust by wetting down a road. Action riders are filmed in pan with 30 mm lens. Distant gunfire should have no noise as light travels faster and the two wont mix. Stunts appear better shot from a distance. Use horses and backgrounds of different black-whit spectrums. Avoid filming telephone poles, radio towers, etc, and things that did not exist in Western days Desert flowers can be used for effects.

When shooting in snow, indicated exposure reading should be increased to as much as doubled.

Snow shots should have something in the foreground. If there is nothing, take along a tree and place it in the foreground.

Trees in snow shots should have snow on them for a nice effect.

Actors in snow scenes should have tans or make up to appear darker.

White snow when filmed during a dark sky will appear to be night. Use a blue filter, an Aero 2 or G, or perhaps 21, 3N5, or 5N5, to make it appear daylight.

Moonlight in snow shots require no practical lights with a 72 Filter or a 56 with a 21 or 25.

A traveling shot in snow may reduce as far as 12 frames per second, Keep the speed constant when filming skiers. Ski jumpers are usually shot with a low setup and pass on top against the horizon. Film skiers in the upper half of the picture. Skiers dragging poles in powered snow create a nice plume of snow effect.

When traveling to another country, give customs the serial numbers or lens and cameras.

When filming at sea, immediately clean a camera sprayed with sea water to avoid corrosion. Use an air blower to dry the lens. Keep the lens cap on to avoid salt vapor. Remember to remove the cap when shooting Night effects use a Wratte 29 oe 23 with a 45 filter Filters are not necessary in the morning . Diffusion is only for female close-ups.

On often shoots on ships with a low set up on deck with faces against a blue sky.

In Time and Temperature negative development, the film is developed without any testing. In Developing Tests negative development there are tests to see if the film is overexposed normal, or underlit, Overexposed film is usually underdeveloped, norma film is developed normally, and underlit film is forced developed Note that often a scene was deliberately fimed overexposed or underit for effect and thus should be developed normally to retain the effect.

A lens test from 1 to 22, called the Cynex System, analyzes film. Normal is around 11 to 13. Overlit film may prefer 19 to 21.

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